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Urdu - The Origin and History of the Language
The time period Urdu derives from a Turkish word ordu that means camp or army. The Urdu language developed between the Muslim soldiers of the Mughals armies who belonged to numerous ethnicities like Turks, Arabs, Persians, Pathans, Balochis, Rajputs, Jats and Afghans. These soldiers lived in close contact with each other and communicated in several dialects, which slowly and gradually advanced into present day Urdu. It's for this reason that Urdu is also referred to as Lashkari Zaban or language of the army.
During its development Urdu language additionally assumed varied names like the time period Urdu-e-Maullah meaning the exalted military which was given by Emperor Shah Jahan and the time period Rekhta that means scattered (with Persian words) which was coined by the scholars for Urdu poetry.
History and Evolution of Urdu Language
Evolution and development of any language is dependent on the evolution and development of a society the place that language is spoken. Numerous invasions and conquests on a place affect the development of its language. Urdu isn't any exception as it additionally underwent varied stages of development.
Urdu belongs to the Indo-Aryan household of languages. Urdu by origin is considered to be a descendent of Saur Senic Prakrit. The time period Prakrriti means root or basis. It is a later model of Sanskrit. As Prakrit language began to develop, it was influenced by Western Hindi dialects of Khari Boli, Brij Bhasa and Haryanvi.
With the approaching of Insha's Darya-e-Latafat*, a need was felt to distinguish Urdu with other languages particularly Hindi. It turned a Hindi-Urdu controversy and because of this Khari Boli and Devanagari turned the identity of Indians while Urdu and Persian of Muslims. In this context, Persian and Arabic words changed with Sanskrit served the aim of differentiating Hindi from Urdu.
Urdu emerged as a definite language after 1193 AD - the time of the Muslims conquest. When the Muslims conquered this part of the continent, they made Persian the official and cultural language of India. As a result of the amalgamation of local dialects and the language of the invaders - which was either Persian, Arabic and Turkish, a new language evolved which later turned Urdu. In the course of the Mughals reign, Urdu was spoken in palaces and court and till the end of the Mughal rule; Urdu was the official language of most of Mughal states. This was the time when Urdu had turn out to be Persianized and enriched with Persian words, phrases and even script and grammar. With the approaching of the British, new English words additionally grew to become part of the Urdu language. Many English words have been accepted of their real form while others had been accepted after some modifications.
Presently, Urdu vocabulary incorporates approximately 70% of Persian words and the remainder are a combination of Arabic and Turkish words. Nevertheless, there are also traces of the French, Portuguese and Dutch language in Urdu. But these influences are little.
Urdu was taken to other parts of the country by soldiers, saints and sufis and by the frequent people. As a result of the political, social and cultural contacts amongst the folks of different speech and dialects, a mixed form of language formed called 'Rekhta' (Urdu and Persian in blended form). Quickly folks started to make use of the new language of their speech and in literature which resulted within the enrichment of Urdu language and literature.
The origin of Urdu literature dates back to the thirteenth century in India throughout the Mughal rule. One of the most eminent earliest poets who made usage of Urdu in his poetry is Amir Khusro who could be called the daddy of Urdu language. In literature, Urdu was normally used alongside side Persian. Mughal kings have been the nice patrons of art and literature and it was under their rule that Urdu language reached its zenith. There used to be a tradition of 'Sheri Mehfils' (poetic gatherings) within the kings' courts. Abul Fazal Faizi and Abdul Rahim Khankhana had been the well-known Urdu poets of Mughal court. Likewise, Mirza Ghalib, Allama Iqbal, Hakim Momin, Ibrahim Zauq, Mir Taqi Mir, Sauda, Ibn-e-Insha and Faiz Ahmed Faiz have contributed to the evolution of Urdu language by their literary works.
It's indeed true that Hindi and Urdu are descendents of the same language i.e. Prakrit, but the place the Hindi took influence from Sanskrit and adopted Devanagri script of writing, Urdu absorbed words from Persian, Turkish and Arabic languages and adopted Persian-Arabic script and Nastaliq calligraphic model of writing and emerged as a separate language. But beside frequent ancestry, the two languages are as totally different as can be. There are marked grammatical, phonological and lexical variations in both languages.
Urdu was additionally used as a tool by the Muslims for freedom battle and for making awareness among Muslim communities in South Asia to unite under the banner of Independence from British Raj. For this, companies of Maulana Hali, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and Allama Iqbal should notable, who via their poetry and prose provoked the required spark in the lives of the Muslims. Urdu was chosen to grow to be the national language of Pakistan on the time of Independence from British. Urdu is now the nationwide language of Pakistan, spoken and understood completely by mainity of the population.
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