With the rubber material stuck to the floor and the holes where the tack strips and staples were, you will have to refinish or replace your floor. If you choose to refinish, your home center will have sanders and other equipment to rent and materials and instructions for this job. Since there is already quite a bit of damage, you can just scrape up most of the rubber with a big putty knife. You will be refinishing or covering it up again anyway.
If refinishing is too much for you, I suggest that you consider an engineered floor. These are available over a wide price range but most of these are not refinishable. You really have to consider them like carpeting that you replace after some amount of years of service but they do look good and last for a long time.
Henry in MI